National Children's Advocacy Center


International Resources

Below is a collection of articles, government documents, reports, websites, and more from around the world. They are from  government agencies, NGOs, and other research agencies and include resources in languages other than English. The National Children's Advocacy Center cannot verify the veracity of evidence upon which the listed resources are based. Listing of documents here should not be interpreted as validation or recommendation. The resources are listed first by general international, then by continent, followed by country.


International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (2014). The Digital Economy: Potential, Perils, and Promises. A Report of the Digital Economy Task Force.

 World Health Organization (2010). International Classification of Diseases (ICD).  Available in multiple languages.

Barth, J., Bermetz, E., Helm, E., Trelle, S., & Tonia, T. (2012). The current prevalence of child sexual abuse world-wide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health, November.

Billah, M. (2012). Socio demographic configuration of the sex labour trade in Banladesh: Income expenditure portfolio of the sex workers. OIDA International Journal of SustainableDevelopment, 4(9), 51-62.

Braun, J., Newlin, C., & Huizar, T. (2012). Children's Advocacy Center Philosophy and Model.  Presentation at the XIXth ISPCAN International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect, Istanbul, Turkey.

Brackenridge, C., Kay, T., & Rhind, D. (2012). Sport, Children's Rights, and Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook on Global Issues and Local Programmes. Brunel University. 

Broadhurst, R., & Jayawardene, K. (2007). Online child sex solicitation: Exploring the feasibility of a research "sting". International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 1(2), 228-248.

Brockington, I., Chandra, P., Dubowitz, H., Jones, D., Moussa, S., Nakku, J., & Ferre, I. Q. (2011). WPA guidance on the protection and promotion of mental health in children of persons with severe mental disorders.World Psychiatry, 10(2), 93-102

Fredette, K. (2009). International Legislative Efforts to Combat Child Sex Tourism: Evaluating the Council of Europe Convention on Commercial Child Sexual Exploitation, 32 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 1.

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (2013). Child Protection Model Law: Best Practices-Protection of Children from Neglect, Abuse, Maltreatment, and Exploitation. The Protection Project at The Johns Hopkins University Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). 250 p.

Norman RE, Byambaa M, De R, Butchart A, Scott J, et al. (2012) The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Med 9(11): e1001349. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001349

Ólöf Ásta Farestveit (2012). Presentation: Comprehensive Services of the Barnahus.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Promoting Research to Prevent Child Maltreatment: Summary Report. (2012). Workshop on International Epidemiological Studies. XIXth ISPCAN International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect.  

Refugee Portal. Bridging Refugee Youth & Children's Services (BRYCS) A resource to help ensure that refugees have easy access to multilingual resources on the topics of family life and parenting, early childhood, the U.S. school system (K-12), children's books, and health/mental health. 

Roby, J. L. (2005). Women and children in the global sex trade. International Social Work, 48(2), 136-147.

U. S. State Department (2012). Trafficking in Persons Report 2012.  Introductory materials in six languages.

World Health Organization (2012). Children with disabilities more likely to experience violence..

The Link.  Official Newsletter of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN). Available in seven languages.

U. S. Department of State. (2011). Trafficking in Persons Report 2011.

UNICEF. Information by country and programme. In five languages. (2013). Shining a spotlight on sexual violence against children in conflict. 25 p.

Yokahama. World Conference against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. (2001). 44p. EPCAT -End child prostitution, child pornography, and the trafficking of children for sexual purposes

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2006). Compendium of United Nations Standards and Norms in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. Vienna: United Nations. 249 p.

Mikton, C., & Butchart, A. (2009). Child Maltreatment: A systematic review of reviews. World Health Organization.

Pinheiro, Paulo SÈrgio. World Report on Violence against Children. United Nations. October 2006. 355p. (ISBN-10 92-95057-51-1) In German language.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2009).Handbook for Professionals and Policymakers on justice in matters involving child victims and witnesses of crime. Vienna: United Nations. 152 p.

Carr, J. Theme Paper on Child Pornography for the 2nd World Congress on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. Children & Technology Unit NCH, London, England. 47 p.

UNICEF. (2009). Progress for Children: A Report Card on Child Protection. 52 p.

Douglas, E. M. & Srauss, M. A. (2007). Discipline by parents and child psychopathology. The International Handbook of Psychopathic Disorders and the Law. Eds. Alan R. Felthous and Henning Sab. (pp. 303-17). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Gallagher, B., Frazer, C., Christmann, K., Hodgson, B. (2006). International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation. Project Report. University of Huddersfield, UK. 187 p.

Waters, H. (2004). The economic dimensions of interpersonal violence. World Health Organization.

Thompstone, G. (2004). The development of quality care standards in welfare services for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

Child Pornography: Model Legislation and Global Review. 6th ed.

Guidelines for Policymakers on Child Online Protection.

Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combat Child Pornography: An International and Regional Perspective.

Carr, J. Online Child Protection: Combatting child Pornography on the Internet.

Krone, T. (2005). International Police Operations Against Online Child Pornography. Trends and Issues in crime and and criminal justice. No. 296.

Jaishankar, K. (2009). Sexting: A new form of victimless crime? International Journal of Cybercriminology, 3(1), 21-25.

Center for the Human Rights of Children and International Organzation for Adolescents. (2011). Building Child Welfare Response to Child Trafficking.

Barnardo's (2011). Puppet on a string: The urgent need to cut children free from sexual exploitation.

World Health Organization (2004). The economic dimensions of Interpersonal violence.

The Global Legal Information Network (GLIN)  is a public database of official texts of laws, regulations, judicial decisions, and other complementary legal sources contributed by governmental agencies and international organizations. These GLIN members contribute the full texts of their published documents to the database in their original languages.

Ham, J. (2011). Moving beyond supply and demand catchphrases: Assessing the uses and limitations of dmeand-based approaches in anti-trafficking. Global Alliance Against Traffick in Women. 98p.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (GIFT). (2009). An anti-human trafficking manual for criminal justice practitioners. Vienna, Austria, 28 pages.

UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.14.V.10)


Andersson, N. et al. (2012). Prevalence and risk factors for forced or coerced sex among school-going youth: National cross-sectional studies in 10 southern African countries in 2003-3007.BMJ Open, 2(2), 1-9.

Association of International Schools in Africa (2014). Child Protection Handbook for Teachers, Administrators and Board Members.

Brown, D. W., Riley, L., Butchart, A., Meddings, D. R., Kann, L. & Harveya, A. P. (2009). Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 447–55.

Ige, O. K., & Fawole, O. I. (2012). Evaluating the medical care of child sexual abuse victims in a general hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ghana Medical Journal, 46(1), 22-26. 

Kalisya, L. M. et al. (2011). Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS One, 6 (1), 1-5.

Lalor, K. (2004). Child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Dublin Institute of Technology.

Yahaya, I.,   Soares, J., Ponce De Leon, A., &  Macassa, G. (2012). A comparative study of the socioeconomic factors associated with childhood sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa. Pan African Medical Journal, 11, 51.

Yahaya, I., Uthman, O. A., Soares, J., & Macassa, G. (2013). Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel analysis. BMC International Health and Human Rights,13(1), 33-40.

Yahaya, I., De Leon, A. P., Uthman, O. A., Soares, J., & Macassa, G. (2014). Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Injury and Violence Research  6(1) , 21-30.


Frederick, J. (2009), ‘Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Boys in South Asia - A Review of Research Findings, Legislation, Policy and Programme Responses’ Innocenti Working Paper No. 2010-02. Florence, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

D G Harendra da Silva (2007). Children needing protection: Experience from South Asia. Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Jejeebhoy, S. J., & Bott, S. (2003). Non-consensual sexual experiences of young people: A review of the evidence from developing countries. New Delhi, India: Population Council. 

Australia & New Zealand

Cashmore, J., & Shackel, R. (2013). The long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Australia Institute of Family Studies. 29 p.

Conroy, E., Degenhardt, L., Mattick, R. P., & Nelson, E. C. (2009). Child maltreatment as a risk factor for opioid dependence: Comparison of family characteristics and type and severity of child maltreatment with a matched control group. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(6), 343-352.

Davies, E., Rowe, E., & Hassal, I. (2009). Approaches to defining child neglect and intervening to prevent it: A literature review. The Ministry of Social Development commissioned this report done by the Auckland University of Technology. It focuses particularly on children under five years old. 92 pages.

Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Woodward, L. J. (2000). The stability of child abuse reports: a longitudinal study of the reporting behaviour of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 30(03), 529-544.

Grant, J. Indermaur, D., Thonton, J., Stevens, G. Chamarette, C., & Halse, A. (2009). Intrafamilial adolescent sex offenders: Psychological profiles and treatment. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 375. 6p.

Hunter, Cathryn. Responding to children and young people's disclosures of abuse. (September 2011). This paper outlines what we know through research and practice about how, why, what and when children and young people are likely to disclose. It offers suggestions for parents, family members, friends, professionals or others to help respond to children and young people at the time of disclosure and afterwards.  Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Krone, T. (2004). A typology of online child pornography offending. Trends and Issues in crime and Criminal Justice. No. 279. Australian Institute of Criminology.  

Smallbone, S., & Wortley, R. (2000). Child sexual abuse in Queensland: Offender characteristics and modus operandi. Australian Key Centre for Ethics, Law, Justice & Governance. School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith Univeristy.

Lamont, Alister. (2011). Who Abuses Children? The purpose of the Resource Sheet from the National Child Protection Clearinghouse in Australia is to provide an overview of the evidence available regarding those who abuse children. Identifying common trends from research can help to dispel certain myths and/or beliefs regarding perpetrators of child abuse and neglect.

Mandatory reporting of child abuse. (2012).Compiled by Deborah Scott.  Published by the Australian Institute of Family Studies.

McDonald, M., & Rosier, K. (2011). Interagency Collaboration: Part A- What is it, what does it look like, when is it needed and what suppports it? Australian Family Relationships Clearinghouse Briefing No. 21-A.

McDonald, M., & Rosier, K. (2011). Interagency Collaboration: Part B-Does collaboration beneift children and Families? Exploring the evidence. Australian Family Relationships Clearinghouse Briefing No. 21-B.

McKenzie, K., & Scott, D. A. (2011). Using routinely collected hospital data for child maltreatment surveillance: issues, methods and patterns.BMC public health, 11(1), 7.

McKenzie, K., & Scott, D. A. (2012). Quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations. BMC public health,12(1), 563.

McKenzie, K., Scott, D. A., Waller, G. S., & Campbell, M. (2011). Reliability of routinely collected hospital data for child maltreatment surveillance. BMC public health, 11(1), 8.

Stieler-Hunt, C. J., Jones, C. M., Rolfe, B., & Pozzebon, K. (2014). Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, Article 73.

Taylor, P., Moore, P., Pezzullo, L., Tucci, J., Goddard, C. and De Bortoli, L. (2008). The Cost of Child Abuse in Australia, Australian Childhood Foundation and Child Abuse Prevention Research Australia: Melbourne.

Gripps, K. (2006). Understanding Indigenous family violence in the context of human rights agenda. Human Rights Defender.

Grant J., Indermaur, D., Thornton, J., Stevens, G., Chamarette, C., & Halse, A. (2009). Intrafamilial adolescent sex offenders: psychological profile and treatment. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. No. 375.

Shackel, R. (2012). The dynamics of disclosure of child sexual victimization: Implications for investigation and prosecution. Right Now (Online Journal of Human Rights in Australia), July.

Stanley, J., Kovacs, K., Tomison, A., & Kripps, K. (2002). Child Abuse and Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities-Exploring Child Sexual Abuse in Western Australia. National Child Protection Clearinghouse and Australian Institute of Family Studies. 88p. 

Tomison, A. M. (2000). Exploring family violence: Links between child maltreatment and domestic violence. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Van Haeringen, A. R., Dadds, M., & Armstrong, K. L. (1998). The child abuse lottery—will the doctor suspect and report? Physician attitudes towards and reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(3), 159-169.

Wood, J. (1997). Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service. Final Report Volume IV: The Paedophile Inquiry. 367 p.

Wood, J. (2008). Report of the Special Commission of Inquiry into Child Protection Services in NSW. Special Commission of Inquiry into Child Protection Services.


Andrey Makhanko (2012).International NGO "Ponimanie": Development of Child Protection System in Belarus in 2009-12. Presentation at the XIXth ISPCAN International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect, Istanbul, Turkey.

Barnahus in Belarus. (2013). Child Friendly Investigation. True vs. Trauma.  Keeping right Balance. International NGO "Ponimanie", Minsk. Belarus.



National Center for Child Abuse Prevention-Republic of Moldova.Inter -sectoral collaboration. Slide presentation

Tijne Berg- le Clercq (2012). Combatting child abuse and neglect in Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Sweden and the Netherlands.  Netherlands Jeugdinstituut.

Council of Europe Guidelines on Child-Friendly Justice. Draft Guidelines of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on child-friendly justice (as prepared by Ms. Ankie Vandekerckhove, Scintific Expert of the CJ-S-CH, following the 3rd meeting of the Group on 8-10 December 2009), Strasbourg, 5 January 2010, 19 p.

World Health Organization. Violence and Injury Prevention Programme. (2007). Preventing Child Maltreatment in Europe: A Public Health Approach. 16 p.

Ainsaar, M., & Loof, L. (2010). Online behaviour related to child sexual abuse: Literature report.

Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse - Database of Best Practice.  (2011). European Economic and Social Committee (EESC). Descriptions and links to more than 40 examples of prevention efforts against child sexual abuse  in Europe are provided. These efforts vary widely in terms of target group, environment and methods used. Translation is available through Google for many of them.


Apostólico, M. R., Hino, P., & Egry, E. Y. (2013). Possibilities for addressing child abuse in systematized nursing consultations.  Revista da Escola de Enfermagen da USP, 47(2), 320-327.  English and Portuguese versions

Avanci, J., Assis, S., Oliveira, R., & Pires, T.(2012). Childhood depression: Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 6, 26-35.

Bassini, D. G., et al. (2009). Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: A population based study. BMC Public Health, 9(133).

Childhood Brazil. Special Testimony Project. Slide presentation.

Court of Justice. Depoimento Especial. A experiência da Comarca de Abaetetuba na oitiva de crianças e adolescentes em situação de violência física e sexual. Slide presentation.

Habigzang, L. F., Stroeher, F. H., Hatzenberger, R., Cunha, R. C., da Silva Ramos, M., & Koller, S. H. (2009). Cognitive behavioral group therapy for sexually abused girls. Rev Saúde Pública 2009;43(Supl. 1).

National Children's Advocacy Center (2012). National Children's Advocacy Center's Forensic Interview Structure-Portuguese translation.

Parrish, C . Surkan, P.J . Martins, S.S . Gattaz, W.F . Andrade, L.H . Viana, M.C . (2012). Childhood adversity and adult onset of Hypertension in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, E20

Pro Paz por Uma Cultura de Paz (2013). Slide presentation.

Scomparini, L. B., dos Santos, B., Rosenheck, R. A., & Scivoletto, S. (2013). Association of child maltreatment and psychiatric diagnosis in Brazilian children and adolescents. Clinics, 68(8), 1096-1102.


Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect. 2000.

Chabot, M., Fallon, B., Tonmyr, L., Maclaurin, B., Fluke, J., & Blackstock, C. (2013). Exploring alternate specifications to explain agency-level effects in placement decisions regarding aboriginal children: Further analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part B. Child Abuseand Neglect, 37(1), 61-76.

Fallon, B.., Ma, J., Allan, K., Pillhofer, M., Trocmé, N., & Jud, A. (2013). Opportunities for prevention and intervention with young children: Lessons from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7(1).

Hassan, G., Thombs, B. D., Rousseau, C., Kirmayer, L. J., Feightner, J., Ueffing, E., & Pottie, K. (2011). Child maltreatment: Evidence review for newly arriving immigrants and refugees. (2011). Collaboration for Immigrant and Refugee Health, Appendix 12

MacMillan, H. L., Jamieson, E., Wathen, C. N., Boyle, M. H., Walsh, C. A., Omura, J., ... & Lodenquai, G. (2007). Development of a Policy‐Relevant Child Maltreatment Research Strategy. Milbank Quarterly, 85(2), 337-374.

Pilarczyk, I. C. (2013). 'To Shudder at the Bare Recital of Those Acts': Child Abuse, Family, and Montreal Courts in the Early Nineteenth Century.Essays in the History of Canadian Law, 11, 370-426.

Tonmyr, L., Li, Y. A., Williams, G., Scott, D., & Jack, S. M. (2010). Patterns of reporting by health care and nonhealth care professionals to child protection services in Canada.Paediatrics & child health, 15(8), e25

Ward, M. G., Ornstein, A., Niec, A., & Murray, C. L. (2013). The medical assessment of bruising in suspected child maltreatment cases: A clinical perspective.Paediatric child health, 18(8),433-437.

What victims of crime can expect from the criminal justice system: Victims of crime protocol. 2007.

China (Mandarin Language)

Efficacy of Child Advocacy Centers: A Bibliography. (2011). National Children's Advocacy Center. MANDARIN TRANSLATION

Cross, T. P., Jones, L. M., Walsh, W. A., & SImone, M. (2006) Executive Summary: Findings from the UNH Multi-Site Evaluation of Children's Advocacy Centers. Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire. MANDARIN TRANSLATION.

National Children's Advocacy Center (2011). Forensic Interview Structure. MANDARIN TRANSLATION

Leung, P. W., Wong, W. C., Chen, W. Q., & Tang, C. S. (2008). Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 2, 27.


Ajduković, M., Sušac, N., & Rajter, M. (2013). Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia. Croatian Medical Journal, 54(5), 469-479.

Jakupcevic, K. K., & Ajdukovic, M. (2011). Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder. Croatian Medical Journal, 52, 25-34.

Sesar, K., Šimić, N., & Barišić, M. (2010). Multi-type childhood abuse, strategies of coping, and psychological adaptations in young adults. Croatian Medical Journal, 51(5), 406-416.


Elklit, A., Karstoft, K. I., Armour, C., Feddern, D., & Christoffersen, M. (2013). Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4


Corso, P., & Roldos, M. (2012). A comparison of willingness to pay to prevent child maltreatment deaths in Ecuador and the United States. Injury prevention, 18(Suppl 1), A181-A181.


Girgira, T., Tilahun, B., & Bacha, T. (2014). Time to presentation, pattern and immediate health effects of alleged child sexual abuse at two tertiary hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  BMC Public Health, 14(1), 92-97.

Jemal, J. (2012). The child sexual abuse epidemic in Addis Ababa: Some reflections on reported incidents, psychosocial consequences and implications.Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 22(1), 59-66. 


Inkilä, J., Flinck, A., Luukkaala, T., Åstedt-Kurki, P., & Paavilainen, E. (2013). Interprofessional collaboration in the detection of and early intervention in child maltreatment: Employees' experiences. Nursing Research and Practice, 2013.


FeaturedFeatured "In The Loop"

Picherot, G., Vabres, N., Fleury, J.,  Launay, E., & Gras-Leguen, C. (2012). How do we recognize recent sexual abuse in children less than 10 years of age? What is the role of Paediatric Wards? Experience in a French Paediatric Hospital. In E. A. Kalfoğlu (Ed.), Sexual abuse - breaking the silence, p. 127-136. 


Habetha, S., Bleich, S., Weidenhammer, J., & Fegert, J. M. (2012). A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect.Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 6(1), 6-35.

Iffland, B., Brähler, E., Neuner, F., Häuser, W., & Glaesmer, H. (2013). Frequency of child maltreatment in a representative sample of the German population. BMC public health, 13(1), 980-987.

Jacobi, G., Dettmeyer, R., Banaschak, S., Brosig, B., & Herrmann, B. (2010). Child Abuse and Neglect: Diagnosis and Management.Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 107(13), 231–40. A selective literature review based on a search of different databases for publications on all types of violence against children in Germany, except sexual and emotional abuse. The authors present typical case constellations and characteristic patterns of injury that should arouse the suspicion of child maltreatment and then outline the appropriate behavioral options in response to child maltreatment and the medical interventions that should be undertaken to protect children against it.

Spröber, N., Schneider, T., Rassenhofer, M., Seitz, A., Liebhardt, H., König, L., & Fegert, J. M. (2014). Child sexual abuse in religiously affiliated and secular institutions: a retrospective descriptive analysis of data provided by victims in a government-sponsored reappraisal program in Germany.BMC Public Health, 14(1), 282-294.


 Kalogiratou, A. “Η Ανάμνηση Παιδικής Σεξουαλικής Κακοποίησης και τα ΜΜΕ: Προβληματισμοί και Θέματα Δεοντολογίας (The Recollection of Childhood Sexual Abuse Memories and the Mass Media), In: O.Giotakos, V.Prekate (eds.),” Sexual Abuse: Secret No More. Greek Letters, Athens, Greece. 7 p.

The Smile of the Child (2014). Summary of agency services and activities.

NCAC Infographic -Greek language version

Hong Kong

Chan, K. (2011). Children exposed to child maltreatment and intimate partner violence: A study of co-occurrence among Hong Kong Chinese families.Child Abuse & Neglect, 35(7), 532-542

Chan, K. L. (2012). Comparison of parent and child reports on child maltreatment in a representative household sample in Hong Kong. Journal of Family Violence, 27(1), 11-21.



Freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir. (2004). Risk Factors for Repeated Child Maltreatment.

Lanzarote Committee members visit Iceland's Children's House (2012).

Gudbrandsson, B.(2012). Presentation-"The Children's House-Barnahus: The Multidisciplinary Response to Child's Disclosure of Abuse". The Government Agency for Child Protection-Iceland.


Banwari, G. H. (2013). Adolescent male peer  sexual abuse: An issue often neglected. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 35(4), 394-396.

Deb, S., & Modak, S. (2010). Prevalence of violence against children in families in Tripura and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Journal of injury and violence research, 2(1), 5-18

Dutta, T. (2013). Changing livelihood, disaster and human trafficking-A study of the disaster affected areas of Assam. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(8). 4 p.

Iyer, B. H. (2013, May). Analysis of Existing Legal Framework on Trafficking for CSEC. In  9th SAARC Chief Justices Conference. 

Nair, A. B., &  Devika, J.(2014). Self-reported sexual abuse among a group of adolescents attending life skills education workshops in Kerala. Academic Medical Journal of India, 2(1), 3–6.

Nautiyal, P., & Mal, A. (2010). Towards protection of children against sexual abuse: No child's play. 3 NUJS L. REV.77. 16 pages. This paper addresses some areas of concern with the substantive and procedural aspects of the Offences against Children (Prevention) Bill, 2005, dealing with the issue of child sexual abuse,not only with respect to the Bill, but with the overarching scheme of child protection in India.

Srivastava, M., & Jayasurya, G. (2011). Sexual offenses against children: Emerging legal responses & legislative policy making. 13 p.


Mahram, M., Hosseinkhani, Z., Nedjat, S., & Aflatouni, A. (2013). Epidemiologic evaluation of child abuse and neglect in school-aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, 23(2), 159-164.


Sternberg, K. J., Lamb, M. E., Greenbaum, C., Cicchetti, D., Dawud, S., Cortes, R. M., ... & Lorey, F. (1993). Effects of domestic violence on children's behavior problems and depression.Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 44-52. 


Palazzi, S., De Girolamo, G., & Liverani, T. (2005). Observational study of suspected maltreatment in Italian paediatric emergency departments. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(4), 406-410.


Fujimoto, M., Hirose, T., Nakayama, T., Okawa, H., & Takigawa, I. (2007). Measuring Japanese mothers' perception of child abuse: Development of a Japanese version of the child abuse blame scale – physical abuse (CABS-PA-J). BioPsychoSocial Medicine.

Koizumi, M., & Takagishi, H. (2014). The Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Emotion Recognition. PloS one, 9(1), e86093

Newlin, C. (2013). 子どもの権利擁護センター(CAC) および CAC の司法面接者と医師たちの役割 Huntsville, AL: National Children's Advocacy Center.

Nambu, S., Nasu, A., Nishimura, S., Nishimura, A., & Fujiwara, S. (2011). Fatal child abuse in Japan: Does a trend exist toward tougher sentencing?. Journal of injury and violence research, 3(2), 74-79


Al‐Hassan, S. M., & Lansford, J. E. (2011). Evaluation of the better parenting programme in Jordan. Early Child Development and Care, 181(5), 587-598.


Knaul, F. M., & Ramirez, M. A. (2005). "Family violence and child abuse in Latin America and the Caribbean: The cases of Columbia and Mexico", IADB, Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series, SOC-137.  57 p.

Loza, O., Strathdee, S. A., Lozada, R., Staines, H., Ojeda, V. D., Martínez, G. A., ... & Patterson, T. L. (2010). Correlates of early versus later initiation into sex work in two Mexico–US border cities.   Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1), 37-44.

School Manual on Emergency Preparedness and Response (2010). Namibia. 64 p.


Schols, M. W., De Ruiter, C., & Öry, F. G. (2013). How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study. BMC public health, 13(1), 807.

Snoeren, F., Hoefnagels, C., Evers, S. M., & Lamers-Winkelman, F. (2013). Design of a prospective study on mental health and quality of life of maltreated children (ages5-16) after a report to an advice and reporting center on child abuse and neglect. BMC Public Health, 13. 21 p.

Snoeren, F., Hoefnagels, C., Lamers-Winkelman, F., Baeten, P., & Evers, S. M. (2013). Design of a quasi-experiment on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using the child-interview intervention during the investigation following a report of child abuse and/or neglectBMC public health13(1), 1164.


Bakketeig, E. Berg, M., Myklebust, T., & Stefansen, K. (2012). Barnehus-Evalueringen 2012. Oslo.

 Flåm, A. M., & Haugstvedt, E. (2013). Test balloons? Small signs of big events: A qualitative study on circumstances facilitating adults' awareness of children's first signs of abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(9), 633-642.

International Investigative Interviewing Research Group (2010). Bulletin 2(2).

Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police. Fact Sheet.

Sørbø, M. F., Grimstad, H., Bjørngaard, J.H., Schei, B., & Lukasse, M. (2012). Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study. BMC Public Health, 13, 186-197.

Stefansen, K., Gundersen, T., & Bakketeig, E. (2012). Barnehusevalueringen 2012. DELRAPPORT 2.  Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring


Al-Saadoon, M., Al-Sharbati, M., El Nour, I., & Al-Said, B. (2012). Child Maltreatment: Types and effects: Series of six cases from a university hospital in Oman.Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 12(1), 97.


Jardim, P., Ribeiro, C., Oral, R., & Magalhães, T. (2013).Portuguese management of child abuse and neglect.Slide presentation.

National Children's Advocacy Center (2012). National Children's Advocacy Center's Forensic Interview Structure-Portuguese translation.

Puerto Rico

Sledjeski, E. M., Dierker, L. C., Bird, H. R., & Canino, G. (2009). Predicting child maltreatment among Puerto Rican children from migrant and non-migrant families. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(6), 382-392.


Huntley, S. S. (2013). Russian Legislation on the Protection of Children Against Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation: A Review. International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children. 167p.

EPCAT International (2008). Regional Overview on Child Sexual Abuse Images through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Belarus, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. 95p.

Newlin, C. (2012). International implementation of the Children's Advocacy Center model and Russia-specific Resources. International implementation of the Children's Advocacy Center model and Russia-specific Resources. Международное внедрение модели Центра Детских Адвокатов и ресурсы, специфичные для России. The National Children's Advocacy Center. Slide presentation.

UNICEF in the Russian Federation - to protect and support children's rights enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. UNICEF is working in Russia since 1997. Original in Russian language.

Cross, T. P., Jones, L. M., Walsh, W. A., & Simone, M. (2006). Executive Summary: Findings from the UNH Multi-Site Evaluation of Children's Advocacy Centers. Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire. RUSSIAN TRANSLATION

Efficacy of Child Advocacy Centers: A bibliography. (2011). National Children's Advocacy Center. RUSSIAN TRANSLATION.

Russian National Children's Strategy (2012). Full Text Russian language. 3 page English Summary

Smykalo, L., & Suvorova,S. (2013). Continuum of care model for childen victims of abuse: Developing online support services for children. St. Petersburg, Doctors to Children.  Slide presentation.

Srivastava, M., & Jayasurya, G. (2011). Sexual offenses against children: Emerging Legal Responses & Legislative Policy Making.

Saudi Arabia

Al-Dabaan, R., Newton, J. T., & Asimakopoulou, K. (2014). Knowledge, attitudes, and experience of dentists living in Saudi Arabia toward child abuse and neglect. The Saudi Dental Journal, 26(3), 79-87.

Almuneef, M., & Al-Eissa, M. (2011). Preventing child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia: are we ready?.Annals of Saudi medicine, 31(6), 635-640


Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Cortina-Borja, M., Woodman, J., Mok, J., McGhee, J., Taylor, J., ... & Gilbert, R. (2014). Maltreatment or violence-related injury in children and adolescents admitted to the NHS: Comparison of trends in England and Scotland between 2005 and 2011.BMJ open, 4(4), e004474.

LaRooy, D., Lamb, M. E, & Memon, A. (2008). Forensic interviews with children in Scotland: A survey of interview practices among police.

Scottish Parliamentary Corporate Body (2014). Report on tackling child sexual exploitation in Scotland. Scottish Parliament, Public Petitions Committee.

South Africa

Kidz Clinic Roots and Shoots Preventative Programme (2013). Slide presentation.

Institute for Child Witness Research and Training (2013). Court Preparation Programme for Child Witnessess. Slide presentation.

Kreston, S. S. (2007). Trafficking in children in South Africa:  An analysis of pending legislation. Child Abuse Research in South Africa, 8(1), 35-50.

Manfroni, A. (2013). What comes first ? Multiple traumatization of sexual assault survivors in Katorus, South Africa. Ekupholeni Mental Health and Trauma Center, Katlehong. Slide presentation.

South Korea

Park, H. (2013). Legislative Update: Recent Amendments to South Korean Criminal Law: Confronting Child Sexual Abuse. Australian Journal of Asian Law, 14(6).

Rhee, Y. S., Ko, Y. B., & Han, Y. (2013). Posttraumatic growth and related factors of child protective service workers. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 25(6), 1-10.  



Banck, L. (2013) Multiple Traumas: How do they affect children and what do the children need? Slide presentation

Edgardh, K. (2002). Adolescent sexual health in Sweden.Sexually Transmitted Infections. 78(5), 352-356.

Edvardsson, B. (1997). A critical examination of investigative methods in fifteen cases of alleged child sexual abuse in Sweden. The 7th European Conference on Psychology and Law, Swedish Police School, Solna.

Jonsson, L. (2013). When children victims of sexual abuse don't behave as we expect them to. (2013). Childhood Thematic Seminar. Slide presentation

Rädda Barnen (2013). Inuti Ett Barnahus-En Kvalitetsgranskning av 23 Svenska Verksamheter. 

Swahnberg, I. K., & Wijma, B. (2003). The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) Validation of new measures of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and abuse in the health care system among women.  The European Journal of Public Health, 13(4), 361-366.

Swahnberg, K., Hearn, J., & Wijma, B. (2009). Prevalence of perceived experiences of emotional, physical, sexual, and health care abuse in a Swedish male patient sample. Violence and Victims, 24(2),  265-279.

Svedin, C. G., & Back, C. (2003). Why Didn't They Tell Us? On Sexual Abuse and Child Pornography. Tallin, EVG Print. 88p

Svedin, C.G., & Landberg, A. (2012). A quality review of Swedish Barnahus-2012. Strengths and Weaknesses. Slide presentation.

Hartwig, M. (2005).  Interrogating to Detect Deception and Truth: Effects of Strategic Use of Evidence. Gˆteborg University Department of Psychology. 57p

von Borczyskowski, A., Vinnerljung, B., & Hjern, A. (2013). Alcohol and drug abuse among young adults who grew up in substitute care—Findings from a Swedish national cohort study.Children and youth services review, 35(12), 1954-1961.


Brioschi, N., & Knusel, R. (2013). Abuse against children: Harmonization and centralization of data is required in Switzerland. International Journal of Victimology.

Schönbucher, V., Maier, T., Held, L., Mohler-Kuo., Schnyder, U., & Landolf, M. A. (2011). Prevalence of child sexual abuse in Switzerland: A systematic review.Swiss Medical Weekly, 140:w13123.


Kar, Hakan. (2011). Sexual assault in childhood and adolescence. In Duarte Nuno Vieira (Ed.), Forensic Medicine - From old problems to new challenges. InTech. Written by a Faculty member of the Department of Forensic Medicine at Mersin University. 26 pages, with medical illustrations.

Karanfil, R., Akcan, R., & Orhan, F. O. (2011). Allegations of child sexual abuse and paranoid disorder: A report of 2 cases. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 22(1), 1-4.

Sener, M. T., Anci, Y., & Dursun, O. B. (2013). Significance of Healthy Family Structure in Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: A Prospective Controlled Study. Medicine Science |International Medical Journal  Online first: 26 Jul, 2013. doi:10.5455/medscience.2013.02.8103

United Kingdom

Berelowitz, S., Firmin, C., Edwards, G., & Gulyurtlu, S. (2012). Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups. Interim Report. Office of the Children's Commissioner. 137p.

Bifulco, A., Brown, G. W., Lillie, A., & Jarvis, J. (1997). Memories of childhood neglect and abuse: Corroboration in a series of sisters. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(3), 365-374.

Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (2013). Threat Assessment of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse. 24 p.

Criminal Justice System. Achieving Best Evidence in Criminal Proceedings: Guidance on Interviewing Victims and Witnesses, and Using Special Measures. (2007).

Barnardo's. (2010). From Playground to Prison: The case for reviewing the age of criminal responsibility. 12 p.

Allnock, D. (2010). Children and young people disclosing abuse: An introduction to the research. London: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Hackett, S., Phillips, J., Masson, H., & Balfe, M. (2013). Individual, family and abuse characteristics of 700 British child and adolescent sexual abusers. Child Abuse Review (In press)

Kilkelly, U. (2013). Lessons learned from the past: Legal issues arising from Ireland's child abuse reports. Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies, 12(1).

Lambert, S., & Hammond, S. (2009). Perspectives on female sexual offending in an Irish context. Irish Journal of Social Studies, 9(1).

Lalor, K. (1998). Child sexual abuse in Ireland: An historical and anthropological note. Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies, 1(1).

Lourenço, C. B., Saintrain, M. V., & Vieira, A. P. (2013). Child, neglect and oral health. BMC pediatrics, 13(1), 188.

Martellozzo, Elena. (2011). Research highlights for children's online safety. Policing online child sexual abuse. UK Council for Child Internet Safety and Middlesex University.

Oliver, J. E. (1983). Dead children from problem families in NE Wiltshire. British medical journal (Clinical research ed.), 286(6359), 115-117.

Saperia, J., Lakhanpaul, M., Kemp, A., & Glaser, D. (2009). When to suspect child maltreatment: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 339

Scourfield, J., Cheung, S. Y., & Macdonald, G. (2014). Working with fathers to improve children's well-being: Results of a survey exploring service provision and intervention approach in the UK. Children and Youth Services Review, 43, 40-50.

Saied-Tessier, A. (2014). Estimating the costs of child sexual abuse in the UK. NSPCC.

UK Council for Child Internet Safety. (2012). Advice on child internet safety 1.0 Universal guidelines for providers.More than 40 organizations joined together to create this resource for parents and caregivers.

Wilson, P., & Mullin, A. (2010). Child neglect: what does it have to do with general practice?. British journal of general practice, 60(570), 5-7.

Woodman, J., Allister, J., Rafi, I., de Lusignan, S., Belsey, J., Petersen, I., & Gilbert, R. (2012). A simple approach to improve recording of concerns about childmaltreatment in primary care records: Developing a quality improvement intervention. British Journal of General Practice, 62(600), e478-e486.

Woodman, J., Freemantle, N., Allister, J., de Lusignan, S., Gilbert, R., & Petersen, I. (2012). Variation in recorded child maltreatment concerns in UK primary care records:  A cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. PloS one, 7(11), e49808.

Viet Nam

Nguyen, H. T., Dunne, M. P., & Le, A. V. (2009). Multiple types of child maltreatment and adolescent mental health in Viet Nam. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 22-30.


Mbuzi, A. B. (2012). Legal societal system intervention trauma to child sexual abuse victims following disclosure in Lusaka Urban District, Zambia. Dissertation. Univeristy of Zambia.

Review Article. Integration of Services for Victims of Child Sexual Abuse at the University Teaching Hospital One-Stop Centre.Journal of Tropical Medicine.